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Atom Basics
 

Atoms Around Us

You are made of different types of atoms.

Atoms are building blocks. If you want to create a language, you'll need an alphabet. If you want to build molecules, you will need atoms of different elements. Elements are the alphabet in the language of molecules. Each element is a little bit different from the rest.

Why are we talking about elements when this is the section on atoms? Atoms are the general term used to describe pieces of matter. You have billions of billions of atoms in your body. However, you may only find about 40 elements. You will find billions of hydrogen (H) atoms, billions of oxygen (O) atoms, and a bunch of others. All of the atoms are made of the same basic pieces, but they are organized in different ways to make unique elements.

Common Elements

Common elements can build very different molecules.

Let's work with that idea for a bit. If you read a book, you will find words on each page. Letters make up those words. In English, we only have twenty-six letters, but we can make thousands of words. In chemistry, you are working with almost 120 elements. When you combine them, you can make millions of different molecules.

Molecules are groups of atoms bonded together in the same way that words are groups of letters. An "A" will always be an "A" no matter what word it is in. A sodium (Na) atom will always be a sodium atom no matter what compound it is in. While the atoms have different masses and organization for each element, they are all built with the same parts. Electrons, protons, and neutrons make the Universe the way it is.

From Simple to Complex

Small parts combine to form larger structures.

If you want to do a little more thinking, imagine the smallest particles of matter. Super-tiny subatomic particles are used to create the parts of atoms. Protons, neutrons, and electrons can then organize to form atoms. Atoms are then used to create the molecules around us. As we just learned, there are almost 120 elements that can be found in the molecules we know. Smaller molecules can work together and build macromolecules. It just goes on. Everything you see or imagine is built from something else.

You could start really small...
- Particles of matter
- Atoms
- Molecules
- Macromolecules
- Cell organelles
- Cells
- Tissues
- Organs
- Systems
- Organisms
- Populations
- Ecosystems
- Biomes
- Planets
- Planetary Systems with Stars
- Galaxies
- The Universe
...And finish really big.

Wow. All of that is possible because of atoms.

Next Stop On Chem4Kids Tour
Next Page on Atoms

 
> Overview
- Structure
- Orbitals
- Electrons
- Ions
- Neutrons
- Isotopes
- Bonding
- Compounds
- Compound Names
- Advanced Ideas

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Useful Reference Materials

Encyclopedia.com:
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Atoms.aspx
Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom
Wikipedia (Particle Accelerators):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Particle_accelerator
Wikipedia (Atomic Clock):
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_clock
Encyclopædia Britannica:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/41549/atom
Thomas Jefferson National Labs:
http://education.jlab.org/atomtour/
NYU.edu:
http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/atoms.html


 
RELATED LINKS
- Chem4Kids: Atomic Structure
- Biology4Kids: Scientific Method
- Geography4Kids: Energy Quanta
- Geography4Kids: Magnetic Fields
- Physics4Kids: Modern Physics
- Physics4Kids: Nuclear Physics

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