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Magnesium Symbol:"Mg" Atomic Number:"12" Atomic Mass: 24.31amu. Magnesium is a member of the alkaline metals family. Magnesium is a very light metallic element. It is also a trace element, needed by both plants and animals. You will also find magnesium in medicines and flash bulbs.

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Manganese Symbol:"Mn" Atomic Number:"25" Atomic Mass: 54.94amu. This element is one of the transition elements. Manganese can be found in many minerals and small round nodules at the bottom of the ocean. It is also used in many alloys and the creation of some types of glass.

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Massive Habit This is a large crystal with no definite shape. Sulfur is often found in this form.

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Meitnerium Symbol:"Mt" Atomic Number:"109" Atomic Mass: (266)amu. Meitnerium is one of the postactinide elements. Scientists have created these in labs and may have found only a few atoms of the element. You will not find these in use anywhere.

More Information: Transition Metals
Melting Point The melting point is the temperature at which a substance changes state from solid to liquid. Ice has its melting point at zero degrees Celsius. The solid melts.

More Information: Liquids
Mendelevium Symbol:"Md" Atomic Number:"101" Atomic Mass: (258)amu. This is one of the elements in the actinide series of inner transition elements. It may also be classified as a rare earth element.

More Information: Actinide Series
Mercury Symbol:"Hg" Atomic Number:"80" Atomic Mass: 200.59amu. Mercury is one of many transition elements. Mercury is one of the few elements that exist as a liquid at room temperature. This silvery metal is very toxic but still has many uses in alloys (amalgams). You will find it used in pesticides, lamps, electronics, explosives, and even dentistry.

More Information: Transition Metals
Metal A metal is a special type of element. Scientists say something is a metal because of the way it acts in nature. Metals conduct electricity well. That's why they are used in wires. They also conduct heat well. That's why your pans are made of metal.

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Metamorphic Rock This is a rock type that has been reheated and crystallized. Metamorphic rocks can be created from both sedimentary and igneous rocks. The three main types of rock are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

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Methane Methane is a simple hydrocarbon with one carbon and four hydrogen atoms. It is very flammable. It is a compound found in the atmosphere of many planets.

More Information: Carbon
Metric System The system of measurement used in almost all of science. It is a system based on measures of tens. Measures from the metric system include meters, liters, and grams.

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mho Units of conductivity that are used in the study of electricity.

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Mineral Inorganic compounds usually found in crystalline form. They are made up of pure compounds or elements. Amethyst and quartz are good examples of minerals. These substances are not carbon-based or biologically active materials. A plant is not a mineral. A protein is not a mineral. Calcium Carbonate is a mineral. Granite is made up of minerals.

More Information: Solids
Mineral Color All minerals have colors that are unique to their chemical properties. Many minerals of the same compound have different colors because of small impurities in the mineral structure. Color is always measured in natural light (not fluorescent).

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Mineral Hardness Hardness is measure of mineral properties. Some minerals are harder than others are. Diamonds are the hardest and something like talc or calcium carbonate is not hard at all. The harder a mineral, the less it will scratch. Friedrich Mohs designed the hardness scale.

More Information: Solids
Mineral Luster When light is reflected from a mineral, it is called luster. All minerals reflect light in a unique way. Something like talc will not reflect much light while a diamond will reflect large amounts of light (vitreous). Other elements have a metallic shine.

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Mineral Streak Minerals are often ground down into a power. That powder can then be wiped across a white surface and leave a color streak. It is a more accurate alternative to measuring the color of the solid crystal.

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Mineral Transparency Transparency is a quality of how much light you can see through a substance. A window made of glass is very transparent while a piece of coal is not transparent at all. The several measures of transparency include transparent (clear), translucent (cloudy), and opaque (no light passes).

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Mineral Vein A strip of pure mineral found in a rock. Gold is often found in veins deep inside mountains.

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Mixture Mixtures are substances held together by physical, not chemical, forces. Most things you find things in nature are mixtures. Rocks, the ocean, and just about everything is a mixture.

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Mohs Scale This is a scale that measures the hardness of rocks and minerals. Friedrich Mohs devised the scale in 1812. The scale goes from one to ten with ten being the hardest substance. A diamond would have a value of 10 while a quartz crystal would only have a value of 7.

More Information: Solids
Molality A measure of the number of moles of a solute compared to one thousand grams of the solvent. Scientists use 'm' when they describe the molality of a system. It is a measure of mass as opposed to volume. Volume is used in measuring molarity.

More Information: Reactions
Molarity A measure of the number of moles of a solute that are dissolved in a liter of solution. As concentration increases, the molarity of the solution also increases. Scientists use the letter 'M' to describe the molarity of a solution.

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Molecular Mass Molecular mass is another term for formula mass. You can determine the formula mass by adding the individual masses of each atom in the compound. The formula mass of NaCl is 58.44.

More Information: Atoms
Molecule This is a group of atoms bonded together. A molecule is the smallest piece of a compound that can exist. You can hold a compound such water in a glass. One water molecule would be one piece of the H2O. The atoms could be all the same type (like ozone) or they could be different (like carbon dioxide).

More Information: Bonding
Molybdenum Symbol:"Mo" Atomic Number:"42" Atomic Mass: 95.94amu. Molybdenum is one of the transition elements. This element has been confused with lead in the past. When pure, it is a silvery white metal and can be found in many alloys, aircraft parts, and even as a trace mineral in some plants.

More Information: Transition Metals
Monoclinic Crystal A crystal that has a shape like a cube but is flattened in one dimension. Think about a flattened gift box for this one.

More Information: Solids
Monosaccharide A mono-saccharide is one sugar molecule. They usually have six carbon, twelve hydrogen, and six oxygen atoms in one molecule with the formula (CH2O)x. They may also be in a six-carbon ring or a five carbon ring. The important idea is that it is one piece.

More Information: Carbohydrates


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Chem4Kids: Matter
Chem4Kids: Atoms
Chem4Kids: Elements
Chem4Kids: Periodic Table
Chem4Kids: Reactions
Chem4Kids: Biochemistry

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